Sunday, May 17, 2020

How and why did marriage become a sacrament Free Essay Example, 1750 words

The previous status of marriage Because of the weight that was given to marriage from the cultural, legal, and religious perspective, it is correct to argue that Marriage still held a special status in the early centuries. In this regard Thomas, stated that â€Å"marriage has always held a special status within the community since it is perceived as the source of generations or rather population, and hence it is a key root of the community. †6 Hensley on his part stated that marriage has always held a special status since it is considered the basic foundation of a strong family unit and therefore, an equal strong foundation for a desirable society7. The processes and formalities Richards stated that the decision so sanctify marriaged was obtained from the ancient Judaic notion that â€Å"sex needs to be confined within marriage† and hence, the enactment of religious rules that sex before marriage is a sin. 8 Later on, Catholicism ritualised marriage and converted it into a sacrament. Once a sacramental marriage is consumated, it is absolutely indissoluble but under certain circumstances dissolutions may be granted upon application by the parties. We will write a custom essay sample on How and why did marriage become a sacrament or any topic specifically for you Only $17.96 $11.86/pageorder now This is because the Church has now authority over sacramental marrriages and it institutes diriment impediments to them, and also grants dispensations. Confirmation of the doctrine that marriage under the new law really confers grace and it is therefore encompassed among the true sacraments. The following elements belong to a sacrament of law on sacramental marriage: it needs to be a sacred religious rite, the rite needs to be a symbol of interior sanctification, it must also deliberate this interior sanctification, and lastly, this divine grace effect need to be produced in conjunction with respective religious act9. Initially, much of the laws for Church usage were in the Canon Law. Currently, marriage has been incorporated into public law and has become part of the Western legal codes. In the European legal systems, marriage has mostly been a matter of public family law and not the law of individual contracts10. The Family law now dictates who to marry and stipulates the minimum ages for marriage. Besides, it also governs custody of children, divorce and support relationship of the married couples11. A valid Catholic sacramental marriage results from the following core elements: the spouses are free to marry, they freely exchange their consent, in consenting to marry, they need to have the intention to marry for life and be faithful to one another as well as being open to children, and lastly, their consent is given in the presence of an authorised Church minister and two witnesses.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Personal Autobiography My Learning Disability - 848 Words

Educational Autobiography I have always lived in Yucca Valley, so it is only natural to finish my education in the same area. I was born in Inglewood, Los Angeles in 1994. My parents moved to Hawthorn within a few months. After three years I found myself here in the desert. I have always lived in Yucca Valley, so it is only natural to finish my education in the same area. First, Onaga Elementary was the beginning of my educational experience. My first steps towards the school was actually bloodcurdling. It was the first time leaving my comfort zone to meet other kids. The anxiety was taking over my body. The comfort I created for myself was popped. Adjustment has always been an issue for me. I developed a learning disability. I started English as a Second Language Program (ESL) for my whole elementary career. ESL was a place on campus with three rooms. There were about four other kids in my grade, but I mostly went on my own. ESL tough me how to retain information, so I could be more of an effective learner. Adaption to new course material was the motto. Second, La Contantia was the Junior High school I attended. Middle School was a fight to get use of environment. Everything was new; kids, teachers, attitudes, classes, and rules. The kids were way more mature, than I was at the time. I was exposed to believes and other deeper meanings to life. Since I was young, all these new realities, caused me to lose focus on my educational goals.Show MoreRelatedWaist High in the Wordl by Nancy Mairs1416 Words   |  6 Pagesreal life events and situations. Nancy Mairs does excellent in expressing herself through her spiritual autobiography; Waist-High in the World. Growing up with multiple sclerosis for close to twenty years by the time she wrote the book, Nancy looks at the world the same way a child learning to walk does. She has enough reasons to believe she is uniquely privileged as a person with a disability. In as much as she misses activities like hiking, dancing and cycling, she thinks she is safer being unableRead More Helen Keller Essay1419 Words   |  6 Pagesyears Keller states, â€Å"†¦although I find it difficult, I still persevere.† (Keller, pg. 62) Her dialog shows that even though she has trouble sometimes, she will still overcome her disabilities. Her main advantage in becoming successful was her eagerness to learn. When she first started to learn she says, â€Å"I began my studies with eagerness. Before me I saw a new world opening in beauty and light, and I felt within me the capacity to know all things.† (Keller, pg. 72) She had a positive personaRead MoreThe Teaching Profession Is Not An Easy Jo b Essay1807 Words   |  8 Pagesespecially since it involves educating the young minds of the 21st-century learners. Nevertheless, based on my experience as a pre-service teacher, for the past two years, I can firmly argue that the teaching profession is rewarding, mainly because both educators and students are capable of learning from one another. For that reason, composing a literacy autobiography is fundamental; an autobiography enables future teachers to think critically, as well as travel back in time to when he or she became aRead MoreI Am A Traditional Law School Applicant1423 Words   |  6 Pagescitizen as my mother immigrated to the United States from a war-torn El Salvador in 1979 when a family friend smuggled her out of the country. They fled from atrocities committed by the Salvadorian military-led government. My father emigrated from Argentina in the 1960’s evading social and political unrest and in search of a better economic future. My parents divorced in 1984, leaving my then four-year old brother and my two-year old self to be raised in a single parent-home spearheaded by my motherRead MoreI Am A Traditional Law School Applicant Essay1466 Words   |  6 PagesMy Journey I am not a traditional law school applicant. I am a 33 year-old Hispanic mother of three boys, aged fourteen, eleven, and ten. I was born and raised in the San Fernando Valley. My mother immigrated to the United States from a war-torn El Salvador in 1979. A family friend smuggled her out of the country as they fled from continued atrocities committed by the Salvadorian military-led government. Having only completed the eight-grade and not speaking any English my mother cleaned houses andRead MoreReflection Paper Temple Grandin2405 Words   |  10 PagesState University, a bestselling author, an autism activist, and a leading consultant to the livestock industry on animal behavior. While it is easily argued that Temple Grandin’s life does not represent the norm for most children with autism, her autobiography, Emergence: Labeled Autistic (1986) offers a powerful picture of the influences and experiences that steered Temple through her journey ‘emerging’ from auti sm. Considering Temple’s challenging behaviors as a toddler and the norms for the timeRead MoreReflective Practice in Teaching Essay2957 Words   |  12 Pagesreactions they prompt in themselves and in learners (Brookfield, 1995; Thiel, 1999). Reflective practice is considered as an evolving concept which views learning as â€Å"an active process of reviewing an experience of practice in order to describe, analyse, evaluate and so inform learning about practice.† (Reid, B 1993 cited in Garfat, T. 2005). In my opinion, implementing reflective practice approach to professional development in order to expand our knowledge is a challenge. This challenge involvesRead MoreJust Mercy : A Story Of Justice And Redemption Essay1432 Words   |  6 PagesJust Mercy: A story of Justice and Redemption is an autobiography of the author, Bryan Stevenson and a chronicle of injustice within the American judicial system. The principal story recounts Walter McMillian’s wrongful conviction for the murder of Ronda Morrison in 1986. Interweaved throughout the McMillian story, Stevenson presents his personal story about being raised in a racially segregated community, attending Harvard Law School, and founding the Equal Justice Initiative (EJI). Individual chaptersRead MoreGdfhfh4008 Words   |  17 Pagespre-existing genres such as  crime  or  horror. Writing for the screen and stage—screenwriting  and  playwriting—are taught separately, but fit under the creative writing category as well. FORMS OF CERATIVE WRITING: * Autobiography/Memoir Collaborative writing Creative non-fiction  (Personal amp; Journalistic Essays) Epic Flash fiction Novel Novella Playwriting/Dramatic writing Poetry Screenwriting Short story Songwriting Bibliography Stream of consciousnessRead MoreThe Need to Belong: Rediscovering Maslows Hierarchy of Needs.6034 Words   |  25 Pages if ever, be allowed to enter regular classrooms. This educational paradigm can be represented as follows: STUDENT -- skills -- regular classroom This paradigm has been the basis for the practice of placing students with moderate or severe disabilities in segregated, self-contained classrooms or programs in which the curriculum focus is basic skills instruction. As a result, segregated classrooms generally have been seen as a necessary educational option that must be maintained to meet the needs

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Leadership and Governance for Organizational - myassignmenthelp

Question: Discuss about theLeadership and Governance for Organizational Culture. Answer: Ways by which the Board of Governance will prevent unethical behavior in the CEO The challenges that a company faces in the present times for a lot of leadership of companies that has made a lot of management and boards decisions to stand out. Abraham Lincoln once said that nearly all men can in one way stand adversity; however, if you want to test a mans character he should be tested with power. This is a clear picture on what the CEO s position can bring out of a man. The CEO position should be the very important where every decision of the company can be exemplified through this position.. a vital position where transparency, accountability and integrity should be of most importance in the context of governance of a company(Schein Schein, n.d.). The image of the companys chief executive can run into deep and heated waters when media security fast picks up a story on compensation or any other crisis in a company that has been mishandled by the CEO and blown out of proportion. This is done in difficult times of the company and the current environment. The CEOs effectiveness and leadership qualities are shown in time of crisis like in this case. The best case examples for this are the BP case study that showed how media scrutiny and CEOs effectiveness can be affected and the second case is the Siemens Case of accountability and the limits that the Chief Executive has(Ybema, Yanow Sabelis, 2011). However, the board of governance can do a lot to prevent bad and unethical practices and behaviors that can be brought by the CEO. Every company requires good governance and corporate management. Regardless of how big or small company is, corporate governance is important in ensuring ethical and professional practices. Corporate governance measures and effective policy decisions should be every board of governance top agenda besides making strategic decisions. It is important for the board of governance to have the best corporate governance policies that are the reference point for dos and donts of the Chief Executive of the company. The other way in which the board of governance can prevent bad behavior is by ensuring that the CEO is well compensated. In many cases for example the Siemens case, accountability was the main issue. CEOs should be compensated well to ensure that they do not engage in fraudulent activities and bad behavior that may lead to a tarnish of the image of the company. The board determines the compensation in most cases of thee Chief executive, in many companies, they are paid the highest with some going to hundreds of millions annual compensation which includes salaries, bonuses and employees share benefit plans if any. This makes the CEO committed and loyal to the work that he has been given(Alvesson Sveningsson, 2016). There is no right level of compensation of compensation according to Fabiani but there is the appropriate level of compensation. The third point in board of governance decision to ensure that there is high integrity that enables sustainable yet long term performance of a company. Ensuring integrity ensure that the CEO is accountable for every decision he makes and that the company will face media scrutiny if the decisions are not good. Media scrutiny dents the image of the company and will affect negatively the performance(Schabracq, 2007). The board of governance should also set the performance criteria of any organization spearheaded by the CEO. For the company to have good business acumen, the board of governance must have the best leadership qualities who know the visions and mission of the company. In enumerating the companys vision and mission, the board of governance should hire the best CEO who strategically understands where the company wants to see itself in short and long term. Performance targets should also not be too stretching that they make the CEO and the management engage in fraudulent and unethical behavior to meet them. Lastly, the leadership is a quality that every CEO should have to direct the company to greater heights and ensure top heavy regulations of the company. How a CEO should lead by example For good corporate governance, the people must be considered. Good corporate governance is about the people in all level that is the board, management, staff, customers and shareholder. The CEO as the focal point of a ticking company should have be the natural born leader who initiates the company commitment to give the best. A good CEO should by all means lead by example. The behavior of the company is synonymous to the character of the CEO. An example will forever be given of Kenneth Lay of Enron and Tony Hayward of BP due to the collapse of Enron and oil spill to the gulf of Mexico for BP. It is right to hold all the responsibilities to the shoulders of one man at the helm since he bares the greatest responsibility for the company. Some people argue that a good CEO can compensate for a bad board decisions but a good board can never compensate for a bad CEO. So the leadership of the CEO should be scrutinized and interrogated for the best decision. Siemens was dogged by many allegation of bribery which had tarnished its name beyond repair. However, one man took over and the effect was largely felt. Peter Solsmenn had worked as a senior manager for GE, but when he was hired to held Siemens a committee was talking all the decisions and accountability was least. Peter changed all this because at GE the man at the helm, CEO, took all the decision(Schabracq, 2007). It was clear that lack of accountability was driven by many people making the decisions. Peter changed all this where he made all the decisions and ensured that Siemens public image was salvaged. Peter once said th at some of the decisions must outright be made by the CEO. CEOs can never relax and are at all times the leaders and role models to lead by examples especially in times of crisis. In leading by example, the CEO must be transparent and all the decision made public to avoid a lot of questions as to why he did that. He will be asked to account for many decisions that were made. The answers presented must be transparent to simultaneously balance to objectives of the company. The first objective is to deliver a very consistent and uniform message as to why a company made its decisions. The second objective is to deliver a message on what the company does to any person with questions. By leading the company, the CEO must leverage on the importance of the employees and their loyalty. The general feeling of any employee of a company is to feel wanted and respected and will give maximum output. If a CEO can do that they will get the best output and will hence make the best out of the employees. Good compensation to employees and the CEO is also part of the company strategy if they have to show loyalty to the company(Schabracq, 2007). A CEO should also set limits for the company to achieve. The employees should note allowed to behave as they will. Stern warnings and actions like suspensions and sacking. Top companies in the world have different ways of dealing with employees in behavioral terms. Some set the rules of engagements on policy issues like expenses and gift policies. It is the role of the chief executive to say this are the rules and they must be followed. The behavior of the employees help set the behavior of the society as they integrate with other members of the society. However, a directionless CEO will not know how to set the rules to the employees and the steps taken to improve the general engagement with the employees. There are various theories of leadership that may be employed by various CEO. The first theory is Authoritarian or dictatorial theory of leadership. In this theory, the CEOs word is final. His word is law and he makes all the decisions in the organization. This has its pros and cons in that there are no question that may derail . it is also called the great man theory. The second theory is the participative theory. This one, the leader allows everyone to participate in leadership and decision making in an organization. Here the employees feel great to contribute and will sometimes give their all in the company due to their sense of belonging attitude. Its con however is that it may take time for a group to decide before making a decision. It requires dialogue and communication before anyone takes a major decision. Other forms of leadership theory include transformational theory, contingency theories, transactional theories, participative leadership, behavioral theories and trait theories(Ashkanasy, Wilderom Peterson, 2013). Leverage of employees loyalty by the CEO Loyalty is everything. Loyalty gives someone a sense of purpose and a sense of belonging. When an employee is loyal to the company, he tends to give extra thus benefiting the company. Loyalty however can be inculcated through the following Organization climate A CEO must make the climate conducive for employees to enjoy their work. It is the business environment of an organization that is observed by the staff and greatly influences the performance and actions of the staff. It is also known as the corporate climate. A CEO may conduct surveys within the organization in order to promote the aspects that enhance a good corporate climate leading to a good job performance. Organizational community Like any other community, organizational community is a set up that makes the organization and the people that make it. For example, in a community the head is the community leader, in an organization the head is the CEO. The management and the staff form the remaining part of the organization community. A good CEO will create a good community in order to enhance loyalty(Driskill Brenton, 2011). Teamwork An organization is a team. A good team forms a very formidable workplace. Many organization work in teams as teams lead to integration, create synergies and effectiveness within the organization. CEO of a company will ensure that there are strong teams that drive the agenda of the organization which includes the vision and the mission of a company to the desired levels. Loyalty is enhanced through team building and building of strong teams(Ashkanasy, Wilderom Peterson, 2013). Diversity Every employee brings a unique and strong character in an organization and that is the sole reason for hiring them. There are different departments within the organization and employees bring in different set of skills to the departments. Diversity in personality and skills creates what the company wants. A CEO should also reward individual skills that are diversified. Cultural diversity and personal traits also lead to different diversity within the organization and are therefore rewarded by the CEO(Mallin, 2016). Flexibility This is the process of blending easily within the organization without hardships or with ease. Many companies demand flexibility from their employees either in their time of work, skills and many other valuable traits that may help the organization. For there to be flexibility, an employee may be required to perform different tasks which are different from the common or usual function. An IT guy may be told to step in the environmental department for a little training in the field. This enhances employee loyalty especially if it is driven the he companys CEO. Organizational culture These are the values, principles and beliefs that govern the organization community. It represents such factors such as the product that the organization is producing, the history of the organization, the market, the type of employees employed, the strategy by the organization, the management style and the vision of the company. The collective values of the company should be the factors that a CEO should put in place for loyalty(Alvesson, n.d.). References Alvesson, M., Sveningsson, S. (2016). Changing organizational culture. London (GB): Routledge Taylor Francis Group. Alvesson, M. Organizational culture. Ashkanasy, N., Wilderom, C., Peterson, M. (2013). The handbook of organizational culture and climate. Thousand Oaks: SAGE. Driskill, G., Brenton, A. (2011). Organizational culture in action. Los Angeles: SAGE. Mallin, C. (2016). Corporate governance. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Schabracq, M. (2007). Changing organizational culture. Chichester, England: John Wiley Sons. Schein, E., Schein, P. Organizational culture and leadership. Ybema, S., Yanow, D., Sabelis, I. (2011). Organizational culture. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Pub.

Sunday, April 19, 2020

Soc 120 Essay Example

Soc 120 Essay Do you think people’s perceptions of others play a role in the success of students with disabilities? Why or why not? Choose one law covered in Chapter 1. These include IDEA, NCLB, Section 504 and ADA. How does your chosen law protect students with disabilities from negative perceptions and beliefs? Week 1 discussion 1 and 2 I believe that people’s perception does play a role in the success of students with disabilities. It is human nature to stare, fear or ridicule people who appear or act different from what we consider to be normal. For students with physical handicaps or limitations, their self-image is very important to them. They get upset and sometimes depress because they can’t do certain things as other children can because they need the help of other people. These kids are aware that of the fact that they are physically different that most others and that there are certain things they cannot do. What people think of them does affect their self-esteem. Children with disabilities want to succeed and participate as much as they can and this needs to be encouraged and fostered by the teachers and by their family members. We will write a custom essay sample on Soc 120 specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Soc 120 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Soc 120 specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer The focus needs to be on what the child can do not cant do. The law I chose is the â€Å"No Child Left Behind† (NCLB). The law emphasizes assessment and accountability, and requires states to show adequate yearly progress in raising student’s achievements. The aim is to improve reading and mathematics for all children including children with disabilities. The law gives children with disabilities a fair chance for a good education. Since not all disable children are capable of taking the same test as other students in their grade. The law provides some allowance and accommodations for special needs children such as large print test, booklets, extended test periods, small groups or a one on one testing session, helping students write their answers using Braille, sign language translators and computers. Standards-based reform: a process that identifies the academic content (reading, mathematics, science, etc. ) (Turnbull, Turnbull, amp; Wehmeyer, p. 34 , 2010). The goal to challenge the students with academic content that cultivates all students and results in achievement. This helps students individually by setting standards and making assessments based on the curriculum that they are teaching to the sdtudents. This in turn shows accountability to the students, families, and the community (Turnbull, Turnbull, amp; Wehmeyer, p. 35, 2010). Depending on the disability, their are alternate standards that mark progress if needed, so that it can help the individual student meet the standards of the certain state that the student is in. It also helps the individual by teaming up with the Individualized Education Program to the general curriculum to make sure that the child is getting specific curriculum taught to them that is making sure that they are advancing in their learning in school and society. The IEPs of students with all types and significance of disabilities should reflect general education standards. No student should be denied the opportunity to participate in academic life of the school community. At the same time, some students may require additional goals (such as independent living or vocational goals) not necessarily referenced to academic standards (www. fcsn. org). Discussion 2 Choose one of the following concepts to elaborate on: Supplementary Aids and Services, Standards-Based Reform Movement, or Individualized Education Program. Provide a brief description of your chosen component. How does this component support individual student progress? Cite one source, in addition to the class text, to substantiate your response The Individual Education Program (IEP) is designed to meet the special educational needs of one child, who may have a disability, as defined by federal regulations. The IEP is intended to help children reach educational goals more easily than they otherwise would. IEP is meant to ensure that students receive an appropriate placement, not only special education classrooms or special schools. It is meant to give the student a chance to participate in normal school culture and academics as much as is possible for that individual student. In this way, the student is able to have specialized assistance only when such assistance is absolutely necessary, and otherwise maintains the freedom to interact with and participate in the activities of his or her more general school peers. This program is very helpful for students because parents can work together with teachers to develop a plan, to help the student do better in school and to success in school. The IEP describes the goals the team sets for a child during the school year, as well as any special support needed to help achieve them. As a parent, you can decide whether to have your child assessed. If you choose to do so, youll be asked to sign a permission form that will detail who is involved in the process and the types of tests they use. These tests might include measures of specific school skills, such as reading or math, as well as more general developmental skills, such as speech and language. Testing does not necessarily mean that a child will receive services. Once the team members complete their individual assessments, they develop a comprehensive evaluation report (CER) that compiles their findings, offers an educational classification, and outlines the skills and support the child will need. The parents then have a chance to review the report before the IEP is developed. Some parents will disagree with the report, and they will have the opportunity to work together with the school to come up with a plan that best meets the childs needs. http://www2. ed. gov/parents/needs/speced/iepguide/index. html A Guide to the Individualized Education Program U. S. Department of Education July 2000

Sunday, March 15, 2020

Project Acquaintance Rape essays

Project Acquaintance Rape essays Acquaintance rape in which the rapist and the survivor previously knew each other is a larger problem than most people think. Between fifteen and thirty percent of college women have been the victim of acquaintance rape at some point in their lives and two-thirds of rape victims between the ages of eighteen and twenty nine know their attacker.[1] These alarming statistics indicate the need for women and men to take precautionary measures to prevent acquaintance rape. Alcohol and drugs are by far the largest issue associated with acquaintance rape. Statistics show that seventy-five percent of the date- rapists and fifty-five percent of the victims had been drinking or taking drugs before the rape occurred.[2] Women should avoid individuals, parties or groups, when either alcohol or drug use is excessive. Date rape drugs such as Rohyponol and GHB can be slipped into someone's drink to facilitate a sexual assault without the victim being able to remember what happened. Women should not accept beverages from someone they don't know and trust and should always watch their drink and never leave it unattended. [3] In addition to watching out for alcohol and drugs, women can take several steps to reduce their chances of become a victim of acquaintance rape. First, they need to learn to trust their instincts. If a place or the way a date is acting is making a woman nervous or uneasy, she should immediately leave. When possible, a woman should check out a first date or a blind date with friends. A woman should meet in and go to public places with someone she doesn't know well and she should either carry money for a phone call and taxi or take her own car. She also should not leave a social event with someone she's just met or doesn't know well.[4] A woman needs to watch out for personality traits of a date that are common to males involved in date rape. If a male...

Thursday, February 27, 2020

'Hegel argues that the history of civilizations is the history of Essay

'Hegel argues that the history of civilizations is the history of Reason and rationality permeating mankind' To what extent is h - Essay Example Using Horkheimer and Adorno, it will be argued that human nature cannot be completely subjected, and second, that the elimination of superstition has also brought about the subjugation of nature in general. Therefore, there is a progress of reason, but some important limitations too so it cannot be maintained to have completely permeated humankind. For Hegel, history is the succession of stages of consciousness, and these stages of consciousness culminate in a notion which might be said to be a universality of reason or a notion reflecting wide-scale enlightenment.[Hegel, 1952: 216]. To realize universal reason, is to understand history, and to have therefore, self-understanding. Hegel addresses the nature of history at the end of the Philosophy of Right. Concerning these stages, Hegel identifies ‘four’ main periods. These are the ‘Oriental realm’, ‘the Greek Realm’, ‘the Roman realm’, and finally the ‘Germanic realm’ [ Hegel, 1995: 220-223]. Of the first realm, he states that they are both indicative of "natural† and ‘patriarchal’ communities. Further, he identifies these as forms of consciousness where pantheistic views of nature dominate all forms of explanations, and indeed, where history itself is poetry [Hegel, 1952: 222]. While the Greeks eliminate many of the limitations of the irrational that preceded them, they still had â€Å"slavery† which he suggests that as being a â€Å"compromise† of â€Å"freedom†. Slaves, for example, are like Oedipus before he discovered his own identity. In other words, if history is about memory or recollection, and it is about self consciousness or self awareness, then, in this regard we can understand how a society with slaves cannot be a society with universal reason. Slaves are denied the possibility of real self understanding, but by virtue of being enslaved. Reason is essential to freedom [Gallagher, 1997: 128]. The second last stage is the Roman realm which like the Greeks is a divided society. First, he argues that there is equality and private rights, however, the nature of the relations among individuals is both formal and abstract [Hegel, 1952: 221-2]. A division persists between the classes, however, the division in the Roman realm is between those who follow there intuition or senses (superstition), and those who use ‘reason’ and self-understanding as a guiding principle. [Hegel, 1952: 221]. In this sense, Rome had an educated elite, but an un-educated and â€Å"superstitious† majority. In the ‘Germanic realm’, reason is reconciled with irrationality. This occurs in a two-fold sense, according to Hegel. First, those who follow passion, belief, sensation or the ‘law of the heart’, become elevated toward the ‘head’, so to speak. Second, ‘reason’ which had been ‘abstracted’ from the senses becomes embodied in this world. There exists a mutual recognition in each others rational capacities, and this mutual recognition entails that ‘universality’ is no longer abstract, but rather, manifest in a community of rational individuals [Pinkard, 2002: 160]. For Horkheimer and Adorno, the progress of reason is also viewed as a product of the Enlightenment, however, the progress is viewed as a means of subjugation rather than emancipation. While the progress of history promises the emancipation of people through enlightenment and reason,

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 Assignment

The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 - Assignment Example that led to escalating cost of health insurance, insufficient stress on disease prevention and lack of accessibility of medical services many Americans remained without any health insurance cover. The Medicare and Medicaid introduced in 1965 have been particular on those fitting for the medical cover and had no regard for quality or cost control (Shaw et al., 2014). The medical underwriting practices such as the use of experience rate to determine the premiums based on customer’s health and the exclusion wavers that disqualify certain common health conditions from insurance coverage put limits on accessibility of health insurance by the small business and individuals (Furchtgott-Roth & Banerjee, 2011). Furthermore, the preexisting condition clause empowered insurers’ to fails covering persons with certain medical conditions. Also, the huge service charge of administering insurance cover to individual resulted in higher premium charges than a single policy cover for a large business (Furchtgott-Roth & Banerjee, 2011). Therefore, the introduction of P.P.A.C.A. focused on reducing cost, extending insurance coverage to the uninsured Americans and controlling the gro wth of cost (Shaw et al., 2014). The main goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) of 2010 is to increase the accessibility of health insurance for individuals and small businesses by making it more affordable (Furchtgott-Roth & Banerjee, 2011). The affordable care act has various features that have led to increasing in expansion of insurance coverage to the citizens, limit cost growth and quality improvement of the health services. The Act has eliminated the barriers prohibiting persons with preexisting health conditions from paying higher insurance premiums or denial of access to health insurance cover and lifetime limits on coverage (U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2013). The Act also limits the factors insurers can consider to determine premiums into four namely